موضوع بالانجليزي عن اثار تدمر



موضوع بالانجليزي عن اثار تدمر
بحث تعبير برجراف بريزنتيشن  بالانجليزي عن اثار تدمر
من بنى تدمر
موضوع انجليزي عن موقع اثري في سوريا
موضوع انجليزي عن قلعة حلب
موضوع انجليزي عن جامع الاموي
موضوع انجليزي عن دمشق
palmyra
موضوع انجليزي عن موقع سياحي في سوريا
مملكة تدمر زنوبيا
أين تقع آثار تدمر
موضوع عن آثار تدمر
١ تدمر معالم تدمر  المعابد  المدافن

Palmyra is 215 km (134 mi) northeast of the Syrian capital, Damascus,[13] in an oasis surrounded by palms (of which twenty varieties have been reported).[9][14] Two mountain ranges overlook the city; the northern Palmyrene mountain belt from the north and the southern Palmyrene mountains from the southwest.[15] In the south and the east Palmyra is exposed to the Syrian Desert.[15] A small wadi called Wadi al-Qubur (Valley of Tombs) crosses the area, flowing from the western hills past the city before disappearing in the eastern gardens of the oasis.[16] South of the wadi is a spring, Efqa.[17] Pliny the Elder described the town in the 70s AD as famous for its desert location, the richness of its soil,[18] and the springs surrounding it, which made agriculture and herding possible
Between 1749 and 1751, the antiquarians Robert Wood, John Bouverie and James Dawkins began an expedition to view the ancient sites of the Eastern Mediterranean which had hitherto been viewed as inaccessible to eighteenth-century tourists. Bouverie passed away in 1750, but Wood and Dawkins continued on to Syria and the Levant to view the ancient cities of Baalbek and Palmyra.

Due to the arid climate of the Syrian interior, the ruins were remarkably well preserved and provided exquisite examples of classical architecture. Unlike earlier antiquarian works which portrayed only the most picturesque views of ancient sites, Wood also measured and recorded proportions of columns and remnants of friezes and ceilings. This approach to antiquarianism was one of the first of its kind and influenced both antiquarians and architects in Britain and France throughout the later eighteenth century. Wood was also a friend of the architect Robert Adam and the engravings made from Baalbek and Palmyra came to influence Adam's unique style, most notably at Osterley Manor and Syon House.
An oasis in the Syrian desert, north-east of Damascus, Palmyra contains the monumental ruins of a great city that was one of the most important cultural centres of the ancient world. From the 1st to the 2nd century, the art and architecture of Palmyra, standing at the crossroads of several civilizations, married Graeco-Roman techniques with local traditions and Persian influences.
First mentioned in the archives of Mari in the 2nd millennium BC, Palmyra was an established caravan oasis when it came under Roman control in the mid-first century AD as part of the Roman province of Syria.  It grew steadily in importance as a city on the trade route linking Persia, India and China with the Roman Empire, marking the crossroads of several civilisations in the ancient world. A grand, colonnaded street of 1100 metres' length forms the monumental axis of the city, which together with secondary colonnaded cross streets links the major public monuments including the Temple of Ba'al, Diocletian's Camp, the Agora, Theatre, other temples and urban quarters. Architectural ornament including unique examples of funerary sculpture unites the forms of Greco-roman art with indigenous elements and Persian influences in a strongly original style. Outside the city's walls are remains of a Roman aqueduct and immense necropolises.
Discovery of the ruined city by travellers in the 17th and 18th centuries resulted in its subsequent influence on architectural styles.
Criterion (i): The splendour of the ruins of Palmyra, rising out of the Syrian desert north-east of Damascus is testament to the unique aesthetic achievement of a wealthy caravan oasis intermittently under the rule of Rome from the Ier to the 3rd century AD. The grand colonnade constitutes a characteristic example of a type of structure which represents a major artistic development.
Criterion (ii): Recognition of the splendour of the ruins of Palmyra by travellers in the 17th and 18th centuries contributed greatly to the subsequent revival of classical architectural styles and urban design in the West.
Criterion (iv): The grand monumental colonnaded street, open in the centre with covered side passages, and subsidiary cross streets of similar design together with the major public buildings, form an outstanding illustration of architecture and urban layout at the peak of Rome's expansion in and engagement with the East. The great temple of Ba'al is considered one of the most important religious buildings of the 1st century AD in the East and of unique design. The carved sculptural treatment of the monumental archway through which the city is approached from the great temple is an outstanding example of Palmyrene art. The large scale funerary monuments outside the city walls in the area known as the Valley of the Tombs display distinctive decoration and construction methods.